This study addresses three groups of questions relating to childhood injury in Canada: (1) Is the relationship between family functioning and childhood injuries mediated or modified by parenting or child behaviour? (2) Which is more strongly related to childhood injuries, family socioeconomic status (SES) or indicators of neighbourhood disadvantage? Do they modify the effect of each other? The interaction of these factors with family functioning, parenting or child behaviour is also examined in order to identify the relevant units for intervention (family, neighbourhood or both). (3) Can the models developed based on the previous steps predict injuries two years later? Relevant data are taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. All analyses are stratified by children’s age groups.